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Fern Plant

Published Applications

Bibliography and links to over 1,600 published applications
of the PRECEDE-PROCEED model

The PRECEDE-PROCEED model has been variously applied, tested, studied, extended, and verified in over 1,600 published studies and reports from around the world (and, we can only extrapolate and surmise, thousands of unpublished projects) in community, school, clinical, and workplace settings, and some statewide and national campaigns over the recent decades.


These are reflected in our searchable bibliography and abstracts of published applications of the model in health research, policy, and programs. One can also find on the webpages of ACADEMIA, a bibliography with abstracts of over 16,300 citations of Green (as of Jan. 2020), which may lead users to articles about the model that analyze its strengths, limitations, and distinctions from other models, theories, and applications. 


The evolution of the model and its understanding, language, and visualization of PRECEDE-PROCEED grew out of the widely-researched, detailed, and exemplary applications such as those listed here. Although the terminology has evolved over the editions, the over-arching ideas, assessments, and strategies in how PRECEDE-PROCEED and its evolution through five editions offer increasingly clearer pathways to planning, implementing, and evaluating programs and policies that contribute to the public’s health. 

Link to more than 117,000 references to PRECEDE-PROCEED on



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