Heineman, E.F., & Dosemeci, M. (1999). Occupational risk factors for cancer of
the central nervous system (CNS) among US women. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF INDUSTRIAL
MEDICINE 36 (1): 70-74.
ABSTRACT: Background: In a recent report, we found an elevated risk of
cancer of the central nervous system (CNS) in several occupations and industries, and-a
modest association with exposure to solvents and to contact with the public. Methods: To
further explore the occupational risk of CNS cancer among women we extended the analysis
of the previous death certificate-based case-control study, including 12,980 female cases
(ICD-9 codes 191 and 192) in 24 US states in 1984-1992 and 51,920 female controls who died
from diseases other than malignancies and neurological disorders. We applied newly
designed job-exposure matrices for 11 occupational hazards, previously reported as brain
cancer risk factors, to the occupation and industry codes in the death certificates We
also conducted a separate analysis of 161 meningioma cases (ICD-9 Codes 192.1 and 192.3),
a tremor more frequent among women, particularly in the postmenopausal age group. Results:
Overall, CNS cancer risk showed a 20-30% increase among women exposed to electromagnetic
fields (EMF), methylene chloride, insecticides and fungicides, and contact with the
public. Risk for meningioma was elevated among women exposed to lead (OR = 1.9; 95% CI
1.0,3.9). CNS cancer did not show a clear pattern of risk increase by probability and
intensity of exposure to any of the explored risk factors, Cross-classification by
probability and intensity of exposure did not reveal any significant trend Cases were too
few to explore trends of meningioma by probability and intensity of exposure to lead.
Conclusions: We did not find evidence of a strong contribution of 11 occupational hazards
to the etiology of CNS cancer. However; limitations of the occupational information might
have reduced our ability to detect clear patterns of risk. Cullen, M. R. (1999). Personal Reflections on
Occupational Health in the Twentieth Century: Spiraling to the Future. ANNUAL
REVIEW OF PUBLIC HEALTH 20: 1-14.
Dobbins, T.A., Simpson, J.M., Oldenburg, B., Owen, N., &
Harris, D. (1998). Who comes to a workplace health risk assessment?
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BEHAVIORAL MEDICINE 5 (4): 323-334.
Frankish, C.J., & Green, L.W. (1999). Worksite
smoking cessation interventions. Chap. 6 in Green, L.W., Frankish, C.J., McGowan,
P., Ratner, P., Bottorff, J., Lovato, C.Y., Shoveller, J., Johnson, J., Williamson, D.
(Eds.), SMOKING CESSATION: A SYNTHESIS OF THE LITERATURE ON PROGRAM EFFECTIVENESS.
Vancouver: University of British Columbia Institute of Health Promotion Research, for the
BC Ministry of Health.
ABSTRACT: Workplace health promotion initiatives have proliferated, but
there are difficulties in recruiting employees of lower socioeconomic status and at higher
risk of disease. A survey of health behaviors and attitudes was administered in 20
worksites and the opportunity to attend a health risk assessment promoted. Those more
likely to attend were women, those of higher occupational prestige, and those from a
non-English-speaking background. After adjustment for these variables, the only health
behavior associated with attendance was smoking status. Perceived risk of lung cancer was
significant, even after adjustment for smoking status. Stage of readiness to change health
behaviors was associated with attendance, with those in the preparation stage being more
likely to attend than those in the precontemplation stage. However, this association was
statistically significant only for fruit and vegetable consumption. There was no relation
between attendance and support for health promotion, perceived general health, or other
perceived risk of disease. These findings suggest that additional risk communication
strategies and environmental supports are required to involve those with less prestigious
A systematic review of the research literature on effectiveness of
smoking cessation methods applied in occupational settings. http://www.commhealth.ihpr.ubc.ca/mohscr/Ch6works.PDF
Hallam, J., & Petosa, R. (1998). A Worksite
Intervention to Enhance Social Cognitive Theory Constructs to Promote Exercise Adherence.
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HEALTH PROMOTION 13(1): 4-7, SEP 01.
Haynes, G., Dunnagan, T., & Smith, V. (1999). Do employees
participating in voluntary health promotion programs incur lower health care costs?
HEALTH PROMOTION INTERNATIONAL 14 (1): 43-51.
Linnan, L. A., Fava, J. L., Thompson,
B., Emmons, K., Basen-Engquist, K., Probart, C., Hunt, M. K., Heimendinger, J. (1999). Measuring
participatory strategies: Instrument development for worksite populations. HEALTH
EDUCATION RESEARCH 14 (3): 371-386.
ABSTRACT: During the past two decades there has been a rapid increase
in the number of wellness activities within public and private companies. A rationale for
implementing worksite wellness programs has been the assumption that wellness programming
can contain health-related costs. This investigation examined the relationship between
health insurance costs and employee wellness program participation using a sample of 1757
university employees over a 3-year period. Based upon empirical models and analytic
techniques that are appropriate for these investigations the authors suggest that
voluntary wellness programs may face a serious adverse selection problem in that
relatively unhealthy individuals may self-select into wellness programming Specifically,
the authors show that employees who participate in worksite wellness programming incur
higher rather than lower health claims costs.
ABSTRACT: A participatory strategies approach which involves employees
in the planning and delivery of worksite health promotion programs was utilized in the 55
experimental worksites included in the national, NCI-funded Working Well Trial. According
to study protocol, Employee Advisory Boards (EABs) were organized in each experimental
worksite. This paper describes two substudies designed to develop and measure
participatory strategies associated with the EABs in the Working Well Trial. Study 1
determined characteristics of the EABs, developed subscales and assessed the internal
consistency of the scales. Study 2 used a confirmatory factor analysis to examine the
structure of the developed questionnaire. The four subscales include:
Autonomy/Independence, Management Involvement, Institutionalization/Commitment and Others
Involvement. Results from Study 1 indicate that the four subscales of the 24-item
instrument demonstrated strong internal consistency and three were sensitive enough to
register differences by Study Center at the baseline. Study 2 results found that the EAB
subscales again demonstrated good internal consistency, structural stability and
acceptable sensitivity. An initial validity analysis was performed and yielded results
which supported some but not all of the hypothesized associations. Implications for
further refinement and application of this new instrument in worksite settings are
Pollan, M., & Gustavsson, P. (1999). High-risk occupations
for breast cancer in the Swedish female working population. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF
PUBLIC HEALTH 89 (6): 875-881.
ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to estimate, for the period
1971 through 1989, occupation-specific risks of breast cancer among Swedish women employed
in 1970. For the complete abstract, go to:
The Journals Home Page is at:
THE AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH.
Silversides, A. (1998). Disability management efforts can
reduce number of injuries, improve bottom line. CANADIAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION
JOURNAL 159(3): 268-69, AUG 11.
Tisdale, J.A. & Sofge, C.W. (1998). Observations from the CDC:
Women and Work: Highlights of NIOSH Research. JOURNAL OF WOMEN'S HEALTH
7(6): 651-59, Aug 1.
Achievements in Public Health, 1900--1999: Improvements
in Workplace Safety --- United States, 1900--1999. MORBIDITY AND MORTALITY WEEKLY
REPORTS 48(22), June 11, 1999.
At the beginning of this century, workers in the United States faced
remarkably high health and safety risks on the job. Through efforts by individual workers,
unions, employers, government agencies, scientists such as Dr. Alice Hamilton (see box,
page 462), and others, considerable progress has been made in improving these conditions.
Despite these successes, much work remains, with the goal for all workers being a
productive and safe working life and a retirement free from long-term consequences of
occupational disease and injury. Using the limited data available, this report documents
large declines in fatal occupational injuries during the 1900s, highlights the mining
industry as an example of improvements in worker safety, and discusses new challenges in
occupational safety and health. References cited:
1. Eastman C. Work-accidents and the law. New York, New York: Russell Sage Foundation,
Charities Publications Committee, 1910.
2. Bureau of Labor Statistics, US Department of Labor. Table A-1. Fatal occupational
injuries by industry and event or exposure, 1997. Available at
Accessed October 29, 2002.
3. National Safety Council. Accident facts, 1998 edition. Itasca, Illinois: National
Safety Council, 1998.
4. Corn JK. Response to occupational health hazards: a historical perspective. New York,
New York: Nostrand Reinhold, 1992.
5. CDC. Fatal occupational injuries--United States, 1980-1994. MMWR 1998;47:297-302.
6. Stout NA, Jenkins EL, Pizatella TJ. Occupational injury mortality rates in the United
States: changes from 1980 to 1989. AmJ Public Health 1996;86:73-7.
7. Skow ML, Kim AG, Duel M. Creating a safer environment in U.S. coal mines: the Bureau of
Mines methane control program, 1964-79. Washington, DC: US Department of the Interior,
Bureau of Mines, May 1981 (report no. 5-81).
8. Bonnie RJ, Fulco CE, Liverman CT, eds. Reducing the burden of injury: advancing
prevention and treatment. Washington, DC:Institute of Medicine, National Academy Press,
9. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Assessing occupational safety
and health training: a literature review. Cincinnati, Ohio: US Department of Health and
Human Services, CDC, 1998; DHHS publication no. (NIOSH)98-145.
10. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Preventing homicide in the
workplace. Cincinnati, Ohio: US Department of Health and Human Services, CDC, 1993; DHHS
publication no. (NIOSH)93-109.
11. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Traumatic occupational injury
research needs and priorities. Cincinnati, Ohio: US Department of Health and Human
Services, CDC, 1998; DHHS publication no. (NIOSH)98-134.